Uterine Cancer

Uterine cancer, also known as endometrial cancer, is a type of cancer that occurs in the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. It is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system. Uterine cancer usually develops in postmenopausal women, but it can also affect women who are still menstruating.

Risk Factors

Several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing uterine cancer, including:

  • Obesity
  • A history of endometrial hyperplasia
  • Certain genetic conditions
  • Hormone therapy with estrogen without progesterone
  • Family history


The most common symptom of uterine cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially postmenopausal bleeding. Other symptoms may include pelvic pain, pain during intercourse, and an enlarged uterus.


Uterine cancer can be divided into two main types:

  • Type I: This is the most common type and is typically associated with estrogen exposure. It tends to be less aggressive and has a better prognosis.
  • Type II: This type is less common and is often more aggressive. It is not strongly linked to estrogen exposure.


To diagnose uterine cancer, a combination of methods may be used, including a physical exam, transvaginal ultrasound, endometrial biopsy, and dilation and curettage (D&C). Imaging tests like MRI or CT scans may be used to determine the extent of the cancer.


Uterine cancer is typically staged from I to IV, with stage I being localized to the uterus and stage IV indicating that the cancer has spread to other organs or distant locations.


Treatment options for uterine cancer depend on the stage and type of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery (hysterectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.


The prognosis for uterine cancer varies depending on the stage at diagnosis. Cancers detected in the early stages (I and II) tend to have a better prognosis, with high survival rates. Late-stage cancers (III and IV) have a lower survival rate.


Maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding estrogen-alone hormone therapy (especially in postmenopausal women) may help reduce the risk of uterine cancer. Regular check-ups and early detection through screenings are also crucial.