Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries, the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs and hormones. It can occur in different forms, and the exact characteristics of ovarian cancer can vary.

Types of Ovarian Cancer:

  • Epithelial ovarian cancer: This is the most common type, accounting for about 90% of ovarian cancers. It starts in the cells that cover the outer surface of the ovaries.
  • Germ cell ovarian cancer: This type originates in the cells that form eggs and is more common in younger women.
  • Stromal cell ovarian cancer: This type begins in the connective tissue cells that hold the ovaries together and produce hormones.


Ovarian cancer is often called the "silent killer" because its early symptoms can be subtle and easily confused with other conditions. Common symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel or bladder habits, and a feeling of fullness. These symptoms are often not specific to ovarian cancer and can be caused by other conditions.


Early detection is challenging because of the lack of distinct early symptoms. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of a pelvic exam, imaging tests (like ultrasound and CT scans), blood tests (CA-125 marker), and possibly a biopsy. Genetic testing may also be recommended in some cases.


Ovarian cancer is staged from I to IV, with Stage I being confined to the ovaries and Stage IV being the most advanced and having spread to other parts of the body. The stage at diagnosis greatly influences treatment and prognosis.


Treatment options for ovarian cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and sometimes radiation therapy. The specific treatment plan depends on the type, stage, and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Risk Factors:

Certain factors can increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer, such as a family history of the disease, inherited gene mutations (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2), and older age.


There are no guaranteed methods for preventing ovarian cancer, but some steps can help reduce the risk, such as using birth control pills, having multiple pregnancies, and considering risk-reducing surgeries in high-risk individuals.

It's important to consult with a healthcare professional if you have concerns about ovarian cancer, especially if you notice any persistent and unusual symptoms. Early detection and prompt treatment can improve the chances of successful outcomes.